Particulate matter (PM 2.5)
The level of PM2.5 count is the major issue of air pollution. Urban India has really high levels of PM2.5 due to a host of reasons. PM2.5 is a carcinogen and has to be controlled in a micro environment. Remember, what is outside is inside and we may have other sources indoors from kitchens, garages, fireplaces, etc.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
This emits in gaseous form from all construction materials like paints, disinfectants, cleansers, pesticides, laminates, fabrics, adhesives and many more. We identify the level of VOCs in the surrounding that contributes major part to indoor pollution.
Inadequate humidity control leads to various kinds of viruses, fungi, bacteria that is also examined by us and treated because that cause allergy and lung diseases like asthma.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
It is a colorless, odorless non flammable gas which is not a direct health risk in indoor environment, but with rise in the level of carbon dioxide may cause headache, drowsiness, and reduction in activity level among working occupants. So we use to monitor the level of carbon dioxide because it also contributes majorly in indoor air quality and affect the efficiency of the working employees.
Ventilation helps in controlling indoor temperature. It also helps remove or dilute indoor airborne pollutants coming from indoor sources. This minimizes the level of contaminants and improves indoor air quality (IAQ). Careful evaluation is necessary because inadequate ventilation may lead to increase in indoor pollution.
According to ISHRAE standards the most common indoor air quality problems are caused by inadequate ventilation and improper air distribution. Appropriate design, material selection, filter selection and proper maintenance of equipment can enhance IAQ.
Humidity in the closed space can cause discomfort for the occupants and give rise to moulds, fungi, bacteria and viruses. The drain pans of air handling units, duct work, filters are common places where fungal growth is found. So, by restricting the relative humidity in the duct work and use of well-maintained filters can help in reducing the mould, fungi, bacteria, viruses.
Proper temperature is the most basic indoor air requirement because extreme temperature i.e. too high or too low can cause symptoms like fatigue, uneasiness, irritability and if the air from HVAC is not properly mixed then the indoor temperature leads to humidity and discomfort for the occupants.